Not Your Ordinary Resort Destination: Bald Head Island History
In the 17th and 18th centuries, when pirates ruled the waters off the coast of North Carolina with greed and terror, Bald Head Island was a favorite refuge and base for the notorious buccaneers. In all, the waters surrounding Cape Fear were a hideaway for hundreds of pirates, the most famous of which were Edward Teach, better known as Blackbeard, and Stede Bonnet, the gentlemen pirate.
Bonnet, the so-called "Gentlemen Pirate" from Barbados, was an educated retired military officer who turned to piracy in 1717 as a second career in order to escape what one historian tactfully referred to as "the discomforts he found in a married state." During his short stint as a pirate, Bonnet terrorized the Carolina and Virginia coasts aboard his sailing sloop Revenge with 10 guns and 70 men. For a brief time, Bonnet even linked up with Blackbeard, a pirate who never carried the title "gentlemen." In 1718 Blackbeard was cornered and killed aboard his sloop, Adventure , by two warships sent by the governor of Virginia. Just three weeks later, Bonnet was captured at Bonnet's Creek in Southport by Colonel William Rhett of South Carolina and hanged near Charlestown. Their deaths marked a dramatic end to the Golden Age of Piracy in North Carolina.
Long before pirates ever discovered the Village's nooks and crannies, Native Americans hunted Bald Head Island and fished its surrounding waters in the spring and summer while maintaining permanent settlements on the mainland. The island was, in effect, a seasonal retreat for the Native Americans when supplies of corn or grain began running low.
Early river pilots were responsible for giving the Bald Head Island its unique and descriptive name. Eager to offer their navigational services to ships approaching the entrance to the Cape Fear River, they took up watch on a high dune headland on the southwest point on the island. According to local lore, the headland was worn bare of vegetation, making it stand out in contrast to the forest behind it. This "bald" headland served as a reference point for ships entering the river, and the name Bald Head Island has endured.
The year 1817 saw the construction of the island's most revered landmark and symbol, Old Baldy Lighthouse. Still the island's only "highrise," Old Baldy lighthouse was the second of three lighthouses built on Bald Head Island, and is the only one remaining. In 1903, the lighthouse was decommissioned when the Cape Fear Light was erected on the eastern end of the island, but it still serves as a prominent day marker for mariners. Due to restoration efforts by the Old Baldy Foundation and the generosity of hundreds of contributors, visitors to North Carolina's oldest lighthouse can climb up her 108 steps for a spectacular panoramic view of Bald Head Island.
The foundation of the Cape Fear Light can still be seen at the end of Federal Road across from three lightkeeper's cottages known as Captain Charlie's Station, after Captain Charles Norton Swan, a lighthouse keeper who lived with his family on Bald Head Island from 1903 until 1933. Captain Charlie's Station is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, and still commands a sweeping view of the dunes and sea at the island's southeastern point of Bald Head Island.
In addition to lightkeepers, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Bald Head Island was home to members of the U.S. Lifesaving Service, the predecessor to the modern day Coast Guard. Several buildings on the southeastern shore of the island overlooking Frying Pan Shoals served as equipment storage and housing for the servicemen. The only remaining Lifesaving Station structure is a boathouse that was moved from the beachfront to back among the dunes where it is now a private residence.
Another symbol of the past presence of lightkeepers and lifesaving servicemen on the island is the Old Boat House on Bald Head Creek, built in 1903 to store supplies and boats. A dramatic change in the shape of the creek channel over the last ninety years makes it appear to have moved several hundred yards.
The most notable feature on the 1864 Blackford map (established by B.L. Blackford) was Fort Holmes, located on the Bald Head promontory at the southwest corner of the island. Most of what we know regarding the fort can be gathered from a detailed sketch of its layout prepared in 1865. In addition, several firsthand accounts prepared by officers at Fort Holmes are extant. The fort had been hurriedly erected in 1863 and 1864 as part of a defense system for the lower Cape Fear. The string of forts from Bald Head to Wilmington kept the river, the "lifeline of the Confederacy," open for blockade runners. Given the presence of two navigable entrances, that at Bald Head and a second above Smith Island at New Inlet, the river was ideal for such traffic.
The sketch of Fort Holmes prepared by Federal occupation forces in 1865 indicates that the earthen breastworks extended the width of the island from the lighthouse to the southwest tip at Bald Head. A road to the opposite end of the island ran through the upper part of the fort. The earthen works, it was noted, were reinforced with palmetto and oak logs. Four batteries extended along the east side of the fort. The fifth and largest, Battery Holmes, with bombproof magazines, was at the island's southwestern-most point. A flagstaff was positioned on the Bald Head promontory. Quarters and storehouses were located in several spots inside the fort.
Despite subtle shifts in sand and sea, Bald Head Island remains much as it was centuries ago. It still serves as a natural sanctuary for educators and students interested in coastal ecology, a home for a special breed of permanent residents that share a kinship of spirit with the hardy, independent lightkeepers and servicemen of days long past, and a refuge for vacationers seeking privacy and rejuvenation in a beautiful, relaxed setting.